The warning signs have been everywhere: the shameful treatment of people in aged care, the drive to maximise profits and minimise services across social programs, the burgeoning cost of childcare, the many instances of fraud in private education, the NDIS and elsewhere — and all of it at the expense of taxpayers.
In retrospect, what were we thinking? Did we really believe private companies would put serving the public above profit? That companies wouldn’t take advantage of light-touch regulation? That their insistence on commercial confidentiality wasn’t designed to protect their operations from scrutiny?
Which leads to another question: is our whole approach to social services systemically flawed?
Mark Considine, a professor of political science at Melbourne University with decades of experience in examining social programs, thinks so. His recent book The Careless State brings together what we tend to see as separate problems — problems that add up to an indictment of the privatisation and deregulation of Australian social policy — and provides some pointers to how we could do better.
Social services reform became an extension of the enthusiasm for financial deregulation, free markets and privatisation that swept the world during the 1980s and was taken up by the Hawke and Keating governments in Australia. Why not try market-based reforms in new areas, even though they were outside the traditional market economy? Lumbering, inefficient bureaucracies and the community service model went out of fashion; competition, choice and entrepreneurial flair were all the rage.
Efficient markets are driven by price competition, but in the new social service markets prices were set by a single purchaser of the services, which was the government. But governments lost touch with how services were provided and often found themselves reduced to mopping up and repairing when things went awry.
Not-for-profit providers shrank, unable to compete with the often ruthless cost-cutting and understaffing of their profit-making rivals. Clients, particularly the vulnerable, often fell prey to lack of information or misleading information. The absence of real alternatives made choice illusory.
Another result was that the quality of services deteriorated. “If money can be made by providing a terrible service, that is what a market will allow,” writes Considine. Serious fraud and rorting of the rules, costing billions of dollars, were evident in all the market-driven services he examined.
So what now? The timing may just be right for a serious reassessment. A change of government in Canberra and the searing experience of robodebt might provide the impetus for change.
One of those who commented on a draft of Considine’s book was Glyn Davis, who was vice-chancellor of Melbourne University. Davis has since been appointed by Anthony Albanese to head the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and wants to pursue the issues Considine identified.
Not surprisingly, The Careless State has struck a chord with non-government providers and charities, though not so much with for-profit enterprises. It also has attracted international attention: Considine has been invited as the keynote speaker at the annual Social Outcomes conference in Oxford next month.
Considine says that Britain saw a similar shift to market-based services, starting with the Blair government. But it was never as gung-ho in its approach and is already well on the way to a reconsideration. He recalls a British bureaucrat remarking that his counterparts in Canberra “were always more Catholic than the Pope.” Denmark, Israel and the Netherlands have already moved away from a free-wheeling market approach towards a more mixed model of public coordination and governance.
Australian politicians are starting to take notice as well. As chair of the select parliamentary committee on employment services, Victorian federal Labor MP Julian Hill kept the attention of his audience of employment providers with a provocative speech last October. “Over two decades of evidence raises legitimate questions about the impact of marketisation,” he said, “and there are a growing number of informed sceptics deeply concerned that competition and choice has failed and will continue to fail the most vulnerable consumers.”
The Albanese government made some changes to employment services last year. Among them was that those jobseekers considered the easiest to return to work are no longer assigned to employment agencies, for whom they were easy earners, but are instead referred to a digital service. The existing system remains for two-thirds of unemployed people, however, including an estimated 500,000 who have been on benefits for more than a year — a figure that has barely changed despite a substantial fall in overall unemployment.
The government’s changes prompted Hill to ask his audience: “Will you respond to the greater flexibility in the system and upfront investment by investing in people? Or will we see more ‘creaming and parking,’ as has plagued the privatised system for twenty years, underinvesting in those who need the most help?” Hill was referring to the fact that more money could be made by “creaming” — moving the easiest clients quickly into jobs — while “parking” those with greater needs but fewer prospects of employment.
Those hoping Hill’s views may be tempered by Liberals on the committee could be disappointed. Russell Broadbent, a Victorian Liberal MP with a long record of hewing an independent path, is the committee’s deputy chair. He praises Hill’s bipartisan approach, is impressed with the critique developed by Considine (who has given evidence to the inquiry), and is concerned the present system plays into the hands of those who argue that “everyone who hasn’t got a job is a slacker. That is just not true — most have multiple barriers to entry into the workforce.”
Broadbent also makes broader criticisms of the market-based social services. “How come private aged-care providers drive exceptionally beautiful cars? It’s not because they’re living on the breadline: it’s because they have taken their million dollars out and say to the managers ‘there’s the money that’s left — make it work.’” He hastens to add that not everyone deserves to be tarred with the same brush.
When Paul Keating’s government shook up employment services in 1995 it went further than most developed nations. The Commonwealth Employment Service was retained but forced to compete with private job agencies. The unemployed would be able to shop around for the best service, and quality would be assured by competition between providers.
As the rhetoric of the time put it, the government would be steering, not rowing. It would set the policies but not run the services. The shift fitted nicely with another fashion — the drive for smaller government.
Capturing the mood of the moment, Keating favourably compared the new market with the previous public “monolith.” But Considine quotes another reason Keating gave for the reform: “One of the things you have always got to do when you think about social reform in Australia is to make it Tory-proof… you have got to hermetically seal them so they can’t get their nasty little right-wing fingernails under them and tear them away.” In short, Labor adopted a policy it thought the Liberals could only agree with.
That’s not quite how it worked out. The Howard government did retain the changes but reshaped them in its own, harsher image. It increased the proportion of employment services transferred from the CES to private providers from 30 per cent to 50 per cent and whittled it away further in subsequent years. Then it closed the government body down completely, leaving the whole field to non-government providers.
It also removed the “mutual” in the mutual obligation policy introduced by the Keating reforms, cutting spending on the training programs that the government had provided for long-term unemployed and introducing Work for the Dole as a condition for retaining benefits. This pandered to the populist notion mentioned by Broadbent — the unemployed as “slackers” or “bludgers” (see also robodebt). Although it has been shown to do almost nothing to help people find real jobs, Work for the Dole has been retained by the Albanese government.
Against a background of rapidly increasing demand for social services, the same arguments for choice and competition influenced new policies in aged care, childcare, vocational training and later the NDIS. In the first two decades of this century, aged care spending rose from 2.8 per cent to 3.5 per cent of the total federal budget. For childcare the increase was from 0.77 per cent to 1.53 per cent; for employment services, including income support and job assistance, from 3.3 per cent to 4.5 per cent.
In the name of “contestability,” for-profit firms were allowed to offer their services alongside not-for-profit companies and community organisations. “A church agency with a history of 100 years of philanthropic work to the unemployed would be considered no better and no worse than an entrepreneur seeking to make a profit from the same social services market,” writes Considine.
Even the most respected charities were sucked into the vortex of ruthless competition. In 2005, the Salvation Army in Victoria was forced to repay more than $9 million for fraudulently upgrading unemployed clients to a “highly disadvantaged” classification so that they attracted much higher fees. Staggeringly, a 2012 audit found that only 42 per cent of job-finding fees charged by providers were genuine.
Private providers also sprang up like mushrooms when vocational education and training was progressively deregulated and privatised, starting under the Hawke government in the 1980s and eventually enfeebling the states’ TAFE systems. The reforms culminated in what Considine describes as “the most spectacular frauds yet seen in any social program… With extraordinary profits to be made, the system was deluged with providers targeting the most disadvantaged customers with courses that had little value and sign-up incentives that made it appear they were getting their program for free.”
Students had choices but insufficient information to make them meaningful, particularly if they were international students. In theory, they could switch to other providers if they were unhappy about the quality of the training they were receiving. In practice, enrolment and course fees created effective barriers. The education and training provided by some firms were so poor that childcare firms refused to employ their graduates.
Childcare itself has also performed poorly. Government subsidies for the rapidly expanding sector often feed almost directly into higher fees and bigger profits. A 2021 study found that an Australian couple on average wages spent 16 per cent of their income on childcare, compared with 3 per cent in South Korea, 4 per cent in Sweden and 5 per cent in Iceland.
“In effect childcare providers lift fees according to what the consumers will bear, with politicians then pressured to reduce some of the cost this generates for families,” Considine writes. He adds that childcare has also become a real estate business, with a bias towards the suburbs with the best prospects for capital gains.
The shortcomings in another market-driven sector, aged care, were tragically thrust into the spotlight during Covid, particularly in Victoria. The aged care royal commission’s scathing report labelled the neglect of clients, including physical and sexual abuse by staff, a “disgrace” that “should be a source of national shame.” Cutting costs on meals, typically described in promotional material as “home cooked”, meant many in care were malnourished.
The pandemic also highlighted how the best-quality care was being provided in government-run homes, where there were far fewer deaths. Eighteen reviews of aged care over twenty-four years led Considine to the conclusion that governance of the sector was “catastrophically weak.”
Substantial increases in funding disguise the fact that the system has not kept up with the increased demands of an ageing population. Considine estimates a 40 per cent reduction in spending per client over twenty-five years, coinciding with the steady shift from a community service to a market model.
Regulation has increased but is often ineffective. Large-scale gaming of the system is evident, with the proportion of nursing home residents classified as needing complex health care — which attracts higher funding — increasing from 12.7 per cent to 53 per cent over the decade to 2019.
Inspections of facilities do occur, but always with plenty of notice. “You knew at least a week ahead,” says one executive quoted in the book. Remarkably, the industry has prevailed in its strong objections to unannounced inspections. The Australian Aged Care Quality and Safety Agency is compromised by operating inside the health department, which makes the policy decisions in aged care.
For providers, the incentives are perverse: rather than rewarding them for higher standards, the system encourages them to cut costs to generate higher demand and bigger profits. Staff are underpaid and undertrained, which also means they lack the authority to advocate on behalf of clients.
Considine believes the aged care royal commission has not gone anywhere near far enough in its recommendations. “There’s a lot of regulation raining down from above but not much internal self-management and learning,” he says. “We haven’t actually laid out the basis of a transparent care strategy. I think there is still a very high likelihood, even with more trained personnel, that the management of some of these residential places could be behaving in a really unsatisfactory fashion.”
The National Disability Insurance Scheme, the largest reform in social policy since Medicare, is admirable in its charter to give everyone with a serious disability the right and the means to obtain the assistance they choose and need. What sets it apart from the other social programs Considine examined is the role of two intermediaries — local area and support coordinators — who help clients draw up a plan and implement it, making for more effective choice.
But the NDIS still incorporates some of the same problems Considine identified in the other programs. It relies on a market for services, with the aim of using competition between providers to achieve greater efficiency. But the services offered have not always been adequate in terms of quality and availability.
The NDIS example raises another weakness in market-based social programs — what Considine calls the “black box.” Instead of the government prescribing how services are delivered, it allows providers to offer services according to their own “secret recipe,” in the interests of innovation, competition and efficiency.
Considine gives the example of a provider who suggests weekly appointments when monthly appointments are adequate; clients then ask for higher funding to cover this. The government’s National Disability Insurance Agency, or NDIA, may see costs going up but be unable to act effectively against over-servicing because it doesn’t know enough about the services provided or has limited ability to act.
The Quality and Safeguards Commission is supposed to be the NDIS cop but it is seldom on the beat. In 2020, when it reported on the death of a person whose carer was charged with manslaughter, it had received more than 8000 complaints over two years but banned only one provider.
Considine identifies other inequities in the NDIS, with better-off or more articulate people or their families able to argue for better care plans. And the government’s arm’s-length approach creates the ever-present danger of fraud, as it has done in other choice-based social systems.
Last year, the NDIA reported that eighteen people had been charged since 2020 over alleged fraud against the NDIS totalling up to $14 million. At the same time, the head of the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission, Michael Phelan, estimated that as much as a fifth of the $30 billion annual spending on the NDIS had been misappropriated. His agency had uncovered fake NDIS clients, systematically inflated invoices, payments for services never provided, and a network of professionals helping criminals exploit the scheme.
The picture Considine paints is not unremittingly bleak. Workplace health and safety has moved in the opposite direction, from a private insurance market approach to something closer to a public–private partnership, with greater government — in this case state government — involvement and control. The cost of the schemes Considine examined in New South Wales and Victoria rose and fell at different times but were ultimately brought under control alongside improvements in health and safety.
Employers are still able to choose their insurers, but uniform standards were set and operators are required to be more transparent, encouraging a “learn from the best” culture, as opposed to the black box approach. And workplace inspections occur without prior notice.
One other area Considine identifies as an outlier is maternal and child health, which is still a public service delivered by state governments and local councils at centres staffed by specialist nurses. The service is available to everyone; to the degree choice is provided, it involves public rather than private providers. The service has a high reputation, says Considine, and offers few opportunities for fraud or “creaming.”
While the Albanese government seems prepared to listen to critics of the present system, and while at least some people believe it is open to persuasion, its risk-averse approach to change raises questions about its willingness to embrace wholesale reform.
Some signs are less than encouraging. The government’s draft national care and support economy strategy talks, among other things, about “functioning markets, sustainable funding and… productivity gains.” In its response, the Australian Council of Social Service urges the government to look at better options, including alternatives to markets, given the “litany of systemic failures and inadequacies with markets in social services.” Anglicare argues that the government should take back the control and operation of employment services.
Considine believes the markets-and-choices model has been exhausted. The pendulum needs to swing back towards empowering the clients and staff of the services — “from choice to voice,” as he puts it.
A culture of improvement and innovation must come from within. Vulnerable people in particular should have access to specialists who advocate for their needs. The black boxes within which providers guard their business models have to be replaced with more transparency. Governments need to take responsibility for services as well as setting the standards.
Is that enough? “I don’t have the view that nationalising these services is necessary,” says Considine. “In most of these social services, where the government has been working with community organisations, it works well. There are some private organisations in childcare and aged care and parts of the NDIS who are credible.
“I don’t have a problem with a mixed economy. I have a problem with running a social service as if is a market. You need to run it as a public service because that is what it is.” •